In this article you will learn about the effects of Turkish conquest in India.
The success of the Turks against the Rajputs led to the establishment of Turkish rule in north India. It affected the fortunes of India in many ways. The Turks made efforts for establishing a strong centralised government and, therefore, attempted to overthrow feudalism in India. Sultans like Iltumish, Alauddin Khalji and Ghiyasuddin largely succeeded in it. They also succeeded in establishing one uniform system of administration as well in north India.
According to J.N. Sarkar “India forewent its aloofness during the rule of the Turks.” India had lost its contact with the outside world during the so-called Rajput age. It revived its contact with countries of Asia and Africa during the rule of the Turks.
Professor Habibullah has expressed the opinion that the conquest of north India by the Turks created an urban revolution. The Turk rulers permitted every person to live within cities without any discrimination on grounds of class, caste or religion.
Therefore, all sorts of people—rulers, labourers, educated ones, traders, the Brahamanas, the Vaisyas, the Sudras etc. lived together in cities and all of these, in their own way, helped in building and developing cities.
Contacts with outside world, administrative unity, growth of cities, coinage system, etc. helped in the growth of trade and industries which increased the prosperity of India. During the rule of the Turks, Persian was accepted as the court language. Therefore, both the Hindus and the Muslims studied it which helped in integrating the culture of both.
The Turkish rule attacked severely the caste-system of the Hindus. Of course, the caste-system could not be banished from among the Hindus, yet caste-distinctions and untouchability received setbacks and lower castes got protection of the state.
The Turks improved the military organisation and fighting tactics of the Indians. The feudal organisation of the army was disposed off, centralised armies were raised, cavalry organisation was emphasized, arms were improved, men of all creeds and castes were enrolled in the army and the mobility of the army was increased. All these changes improved the efficiency of the Indian army and if came on par with best armies in Asia. That is why, Alauddin Khalji could successfully repulse all Mongol invasions.
The rule of the Turks brought Islam and Hinduism together in India which helped in growth of that culture what we may call Indo-Muslim culture. Both the Hindus and the Muslims contributed in the formation of that culture which created a society in India which was different from the past.