The emergence of Bahamni Kingdom was the outcome of the fantastic policies of Muhammad Tughalq which failed and became responsible for weakening his hold over the distant areas of his empire.
Taking advantage of the weak rule of the Tughlaq empire, Hasan, an erstwhile Afghan Officer in his service founded the Bahamni dynasty in 1347 A.D. Along with Bahamni, Vijayanagara Kingdom also came into being.
Hasan’s earlier name was Zafar Khan. He along with several Afghan Amirs had been deployed by Muhammad Tughlaq to exercise control in the Deccan.
However in due course, the emperor had begun to suspect their royalty and they revolted and defeated the army sent by the emperor to subdue them.
According to Ferishta, Hasan had served a Brahmn astrologer named Gangu and he named the dynasty Bahamni after assuming his personal name Bahamn out of gratitude for his Brahamn master. After sometimes he added the name Gangu after Hasan.
According to another version, Hasan claimed his descent from an early Persian King Bahaman Shah.
On ascending the throne, Hasan assumed the title of Ala-ud-Din Hasan Bahaman Shah.
The Bahamni empire under Hasan extended from Daultabad in the west to Bhongir in Tellinga in the east and from the Warrangal river to the north of Krishna in the South. Debhal was an important sea port.
Hasan ruled for eleven years from 1347 to 1358.
For administrative purposes, he divided his empire into four parts and appointed governor for each part.
According to Ferishta, Hasan was very generous. He followed a policy of goodwill.
Isamai has stated that he was the first Muslim ruler of India who ordered that ‘Jaziya’ should not be levied on the Hindus.
Hasan allowed all agricultural produce to be imported in his Kingdom without any duties.
Fall of the Bahamni Kingdom:
The Bahamni Kingdom lasted for about 180 years. Of the eighteen rulers of this kingdom, five were murdered, three were deposed, two died of excessive drinking and another two were blinded. Most of the rulers were tyrants and mostly remained busy in fighting among themselves and with the neighbouring Hindu Kingdoms particularly Vijayanagara.
The following five Kingdoms came into being after the break-up of the Bahamni Kingdom:
1. Imad Shahi Kingdom of Berar, founded by Ullah Imad Shah in 1488.
2. Adil Shahi Kingdom of Bijapur, founded by Malik Ahmad in 1489.
3. Nizam Shahi Kingdom of Ahmednagar, founded by Malik Ahmad in 1490.
4. Qutab Shahi Kingdom of Golkunda, founded by Qutab Shah in 1512.
5. Barid Shahi Kingdom of Bidar, founded by Kasim Barid in 1526.
These five Muslim states of South India fought against each other but their primary enemy remained the Hindu Kingdom of Vijayanagara. In 1565, the four states barring Berar formed a confederacy and fought against Vijayanagara in the battle of Talikota and gave a crushing defeat to it. Thereafter Ahmednagar conquered Berar in 1574 and Bijapur annexed Bidar in 1618-1619. The Mughal emperor Akbar occupied a part of Ahmednagar and the rest of it was occupied by Shah Jahan. The states of Bijapur and Golkunda were finally annexed by Aurangzab.