The American Foreign Policy!
The U.S.A. emerged as a Great Power after the Civil War of 1861-65 and she began to assert herself both in American and world politics.
To begin with, she applied the Monroe Doctrine against France in Mexico. France under Napoleon III had intervened in Mexico when the government of that country repudiated her international debts.
- ‘Alabama’ Claims
- Venezuela Boundary Disputes
- War with Spain (1898)
- Sandwich Islands (1898)
- Samoa Islands
- Policy of open door in China
- Blockade of Venezuela
- Panama Canal
- Boundary dispute with Canada
- Santo Domingo
- Russo-Japanese War
- Algeciras Conference
- World War I
- Washington Conference
The U.S.A. emerged as a Great Power after the Civil War of 1861-65 and she began to assert herself both in American and world politics. To begin with, she applied the Monroe Doctrine against France in Mexico. France under Napoleon III had intervened in Mexico when the government of that country repudiated her international debts.
Napoleon sent a large army to conquer that country and having done so, he put Maximilian, the brother of the Austrian Emperor, on the throne of Mexico. France maintained her control over Mexico so long as the Civil War continued in the U.S.A.
However, after peace was restored in the U.S.A. the American Government applied the Monroe Doctrine and demanded that France must leave Mexico. Napoleon III could not put up with the pressure and consequently decided to withdraw his army. As Maximilian delayed matters, he was shot dead. It was in this way that the American Government liberated the Mexican soil from the French troops.
2. ‘Alabama’ Claims:
The Alabama cruiser sailing from an English port had inflicted great losses on American commerce during the Civil War. Naturally, the U.S.A. demanded damages for the losses suffered by her. The situation was serious but ultimately both the governments agreed to submit the dispute to arbitration.
After prolonged negotiations, between the two countries, the Treaty of Washington was signed in May 1871. It expressed “in a friendly spirit the regret felt by Her Majesty’s Government for the escape, under whatever circumstances, of the Alabama and another vessel from British ports and for the depredation committed by these vessels.”
The treaty adjusted in minute details the outstanding disputes such as the fisheries between Canada and the U.S.A. It also referred the question of Vancouver boundary to the arbitration of the German Emperor who gave his award against Great Britain. New principles of international law involving greater diligence in preventing the equipment of ships in neutral harbours for use against friendly belligerents were accepted.
It was agreed to refer the Alabama Claims to a tribunal of five persons nominated by Great Britain, the U.S.A., Italy, Switzerland and Brazil. As a result of the arbitration award, Great Britain had to pay £250,000 as damage to the U.S.A. Gladstone was primarily responsible for this arbitration and regarding the award, he expressed the opinion that “the sentence was harsh in its extent and unjust in its basis.” Again, “I regard the fine imposed on this country as dust in the balance compared with the moral value of the example set when these two great nations of England and America, went in peace and concord before a judicial tribunal rather than resort to the arbitrament of the sword.”
3. Venezuela Boundary Disputes:
There was a dispute between Great Britain and Venezuela with regard to the boundary line between Venezuela and British Guiana. Many attempts were made to solve the difficulties but failed. In 1895, Mr. Olney, the Secretary of State under President Cleveland, demanded that Great Britain must submit the dispute to arbitration.
The demand was startling and the term in which it was made was nothing short of insolence. The American Government justified its interference on the basis of the Monroe Doctrine. The despatch of Olney contained the following passage. “That the distance of 3,000 miles of intervening ocean makes any permanent political union between an European and an American State unnatural and inexpedient will hardly be denied. The States of America, South as well as North, by geographical proximity, by natural sympathy, by similarity of governmental constitutions, are friends and allies, commercially and politically, of the United States. Today the United States is practically sovereign on this continent, and its fiat is law upon the subjects to which it confines its interposition. There is, then, a Doctrine of American public law, well founded in principle and abundantly sanctioned by precedent, which entitles and requires the United States to treat as an injury to itself the forcible assumption by an European power of political control over an American State.”
Although the despatch of Olney was highly provocative in tone, Lord Salisbury refused to be provoked. He politely questioned the applicability of the Monroe Doctrine to the particular dispute and insisted that the United States was not entitled to affirm “with reference to a number of states for whose conduct it assumes no responsibility, that its interests are necessarily concerned in whatever may befall those States, simply because, they are situated in the Western hemisphere.”
However, Lord Salisbury made it clear that he had no intention to allow Great Britain to be drawn into a serious quarrel with the U.S.A. In spite of the attitude of Lord Salisbury President Cleveland sent the following message to the American Congress on 7 December 1895. “If any European Power, by an extension of its boundaries, takes possession of the territory of our neighbouring republic against its will and in derogation of its rights, it is difficult to see why, to that extent, such European Power does not thereby attempt to extend its system of government to that portion of this continent which is thus taken. This is the precise action which President Monroe declared to be dangerous to our peace and safety.”
There was every possibility of a war between the two countries. However, “Lord Salisbury had a very good sense of humour and declined to take the matter too seriously.” Both Great Britain and Venezuela agreed to submit their conflicting claims to a committee of investigation appointed by the United States. As a result of the arbitration, Great Britain got a lot of territory in dispute. However, by her action, the U.S.A. proved that she was the guardian of the Latin States of South America.
The American intervention in the dispute of Venezuela brought to end the period of American isolation in world politics. According to an American writer, “Cleveland’s policy as to the Venezuelan boundary announced to the world with seismic suddenness and violence that the American democracy was of age.” The U.S.A. could not retrace her steps from the position asserted by Cleveland and Olney. From the position taken up by the U.S.A. it followed that she could not avoid her responsibility for the doings of its neighbours and the general maintenance of order. Some of her neighbours were weak and turbulent and no wonder President Theodore Roosevelt declared in 1904 that “the adherence of the United States to the Monroe doctrine may force the United States, however reluctantly, in flagrant cases of wrong-doing or impotence, to the exercise of an international police power.”
4. War with Spain (1898):
On 21 April 1898, war broke out between Spain and the U.S.A. That was partly due to the unsatisfactory state of affairs in the Island of Cuba which was under Spain. The people of Cuba had revolted in 1868 and that state of affairs continued for practically 10 years.It is true that a compromise was arrived at in 1878, but the local Government was oppressive and corrupt and in 1895, a fresh revolt took place. General Weyler was sent to Cuba with powers to deal with the situation in any way he pleased. He employed barbarous methods to put down the revolt. The U.S.A. had intimate commercial relations with Cuba.
The Americans had invested a lot of money in that island and consequently they suffered a great deal on account of the lawlessness in that country. In 1897, the United States offered its good offices to Spain but the latter did not avail of them. Meanwhile, there was great indignation in the U.S.A. against the atrocities of Weyler. A Cuban Relief Committee was set up in the U.S.A. President Cleveland threatened intervention. Matters came to a crisis in 1898 when the Maine, an American battleship in the harbour of Havana, was blown up.
The Americans attributed the incident to the Spanish agency and clamoured for war. The American Congress and President Mckinley moved with the tide of popular feeling. Resolutions were passed demanding that Spain should grant independence to Cuba and give up all intention to annex it. Spain was provoked to declare war against the U.S.A. The naval supremacy of U.S.A. brought the war to a speedy end.
The Spanish army and navy were both concentrated at Santiago where they were blockaded by the American forces. The Spanish Admiral was ordered to run the gauntlet of the blockade. The result was that the Spanish Admiral and his entire fleet were destroyed after fighting which lasted only a few hours. After a fortnight, the city of Santiago was also captured.
During this war, Porto Rico was acquired by the U.S.A. and Spain disappeared from the Caribbean Sea. Cuba was occupied for some time by the American troops, but later on it was declared independent. It was feared that the inclusion of Cuba into the U.S.A. would have complicated matters. However, the U.S.A. reserved to herself the right of interfering, whenever circumstances demanded.
The war between Spain and the U.S.A. was not confined to the Atlantic Sea alone. It extended to the Philippines also. The Spanish rule in the Philippines was oppressive, tyrannical and ineffective. The islands were ruled in the name of the King of Spain by the missionary friars. As there was chronic trouble, there was a demand for the expulsion of the missionary friars from the Philippines.
A movement was also started for that purpose. In 1896, the people of the Philippines petitioned to the Emperor of Japan to annex the islands. Instead of accepting the offer, the ruler of Japan communicated the contents of the offer to the Spanish Government. The result was that a reign of terror started in the country. The people demanded a constitutional government, freedom of the press, equal laws and the expulsion of the friars.
Such was the state of affairs in the Philippines when the war started between Spain and the U.S.A. An American squadron under the command of Admiral Dewey appeared before Manila and within two hours destroyed the entire Spanish fleet. In July, Manila surrendered.
When everything seemed to be lost, Spain made peace at Paris in December 1898. The Philippine islands were given to the U.S.A. and she paid to Spain a sum of 20,000,000 dollars as compensation for her losses. The Americans were not in a mood to restore the Philippine Islands on any condition.
There was no possibility of their being declared independent. President Mckinley sent the following instructions to the American Peace Commission. “Without any original thought of complete or even partial acquisition, the presence and successes of our armies at Manila impose upon us obligations that we cannot disregard.
The march of events rules and overrules human action. Avowing unreservedly the purpose which has animated all our efforts and still solicitous to adhere to it, we cannot be unmindful that without any desire or design on our part, the war has brought us new duties and responsibilities which we must meet and discharge as becomes a great nation on whose growth and career from the beginning the Ruler of Nations has plainly written the high command and pledge of civilisation.”
The decision to annex the Philippines marked an important departure in the Pacific policy of the United States. “The Yellow Peril, the strategic and commercial advantages of the Philippines, and the active competition of the Germans for them helped to overcome idealism in Washington.
In part, the switch over to imperialism can he accounted for by the rapid transition from agriculture to industry that was then taking place in the United States with a consequently greater interest in foreign trade and empire. Besides, Protestant missionaries were eager for opportunities to penetrate untried areas.
Finally, President Mckinley believed that the Filipinos were not yet ready for independence, and that to grant it would merely be to invite the Japanese or some European power to move in. The scramble for concessions in China, he believed, furnished an abject lesson as to what the future held in store for an oriental nation unable to protect itself from outside pressures.”
Although the Philippines were given to the U.S.A. by the Treaty of Paris of 1898, peace could not be maintained. The insurgent leader, Aquinaldo by name, had been deported in 1897. In 1898, he was allowed to return to Manila. However, Aquinaldo proclaimed the independence of the Philippines and established a republican government with himself as President. This happened in February 1899 and the U.S.A. was forced to act once again.
All organised resistance was smashed by the end of 1899. However, Aquinaldo was still at large and guerilla warfare continued for two more years. In April 1901, Aquinaldo was captured and in July the insurrection was finally declared to be at an end. When peace was restored the Philippines were handed over to a civil government with Judge Taft as its head.
In 1902, a parliamentary form of government was set up there and the natives were given a large share in the administration of the country. President Theodore Roosevelt made the following declaration in a message to the Congress in 1904. “I firmly believe that you can help them (the Filipinos) to rise higher and higher in the scale of civilisation and of capacity for self-government, and I must earnestly hope that in the end they will be able to stand, if not entirely alone, yet in some such relation to the United States as Cuba now stands.” By degrees, the Philippines were given more and more autonomy and ultimately given their independence after the World War II.
5. Sandwich Islands (1898):
The U.S.A. had shown great interest in the future of the Sandwich Islands for more than a full half century. In 1854, she entered into a treaty with the native Government to annex the islands, but in spite of that, nothing was done to annex them. There were internal feuds among the chiefs and in 1887 King Kalakana accepted a form of government which involved control by the white settlers.
In 1892, the native party reasserted itself and effected a coup d’etat. It was followed by a counter-revolutionary movement and a European Government was set up once again. A treaty of annexation was signed at Washington with the representatives of the Provisional Government and sent to the Senate for approval. However, it was withdrawn by the President later on. In July 1898, the Sandwich Islands were finally annexed to the U.S.A. In 1909, they were constituted as a territory of Hawaii.
6. Samoa Islands:
Germany showed a lot of activity in the Pacific for some time. In December 1885, friction arose between the German administrators and the natives. In January 1886, Mr. Bayard, Secretary of State at Washington, instructed the American Minister at Berlin “to express the expectation that nothing would be done to impair the rights of the United States under the existing treaty.” The reply was in friendly terms and a conference was held in which Turkey, U.S.A. and Great Britain participated. In July 1886, Germany suddenly declared war on the reigning King of Samoa, deposed and deported him and set up her own nominee with a German commissioner as his adviser.
In September 1888, the natives revolted against the German protege and his adviser and put another person on the throne. Thereupon the Germans landed a force of marines who were ambushed by the native forces and consequently suffered heavy losses. The Germans protested that the ambushing force was led by an American citizen and that led to unhappy relations between Germany and the U.S.A.
However, Bismarck was anxious to maintain peace and another conference was held in Berlin in 1889. The result was that the Samoa Islands were placed under the joint control of Great Britain, Germany and the U.S.A. As the joint control did not work satisfactorily, the Samoa Islands were divided between Germany and the U.S.A. Great Britain got her compensation somewhere else.
7. Policy of open door in China:
The U.S.A. followed a policy of open door in China. She believed in maintaining the territorial integrity of the Chinese Empire and along with all the nations to have an equal opportunity to trade with that country. Mr. John Hay, Secretary of State of the U.S.A., explained the open door-policy in these words. “We are of course opposed to the dismemberment of that Empire and we do not think that public opinion in the United States would justify this government in taking pan in the great game of spoliation now going on. At the same time, we are keenly alive to the importance of safeguarding our great commercial interests in that Empire and our representatives there have orders to search closely everything that may seem calculated to injure us, and to prevent it by energetic and timely representations. We do not consider our hands tied for fixture eventualities, but for the present we think our best policy is one of vigilant protection of our commercial interests, without formal alliances with other Powers interested.”
Great Britain accepted the open-door policy of the U.S.A. and other Powers also accepted it on account of their mutual jealousies. The co-operation between Great Britain and the U.S.A. was so great that there were rumours of an alliance between the two countries. However, an alliance was not possible without ratification by the American Senate and no such alliance actually took place.
Hay’s policy of open-door was nearly wrecked by the Boxer Rising of 1900. The Boxer movement was anti-foreign and it aimed at turning out the foreign devils and preserving China for the Chinese. It was partly due to the activities of the Christian missionaries in China and also to the rapacity of the Powers in seeking spheres of influence in China.
The Empress and the Chinese Government were in secret sympathy with the Boxer leaders. The Boxers attacked the foreign legations in Peking and practically besieged them. For practically a month, no news reached the outside world.
The situation was serious and there was every possibility of the surrender of the foreign legations on account of their insufficient resources and the lack of supplies. The U.S.A. joined other Powers in sending reinforcements to crush the Boxers. When the revolt was put down, the other Powers insisted on capturing the Chinese territory.
However, Secretary Hay insisted on the withdrawal of the foreign troops and limited the demand on China to a war-indemnity. It is stated that he “held on like grim death to the Open Door.” With the help of England and Japan, Hay was able to avert the immediate partition of China. The U.S.A. got her share of the war-indemnity but also later on, returned a part of it and that money was utilised for scholarships for Chinese students in American universities.
8. Blockade of Venezuela:
Venezuela had many creditors and among them were England, Germany and Italy. As the creditors could not realise their claim by ordinary methods, Great Britain, Germany and Italy instituted a “pacific blockade” of the coast of Venezuela. In 1902, England and Germany cut off diplomatic relations with Venezuela. They also planned to bombard and occupy her ports.
The U.S.A. protested and Great Britain expressed its willingness to withdraw. Germany refused to refer the debts to arbitration. Roosevelt cut the Gordian knot by summoning the German Ambassador to the White House and informing him that Dewey had been given orders to take a squadron to Venezuela and prevent the seizure of any territory.
If Germany withdrew, the whole matter would be kept secret and the Kaiser would be given credit for the generous deed. Germany found herself all alone and consequently the German fleet sailed away. The debts were referred to arbitration and being scaled down considerably, were finally paid. In this connection, Roosevelt referred to the policy of “speaking softly and carrying a big stick.”
9. Panama Canal:
The U.S.A. had the natural desire to cut a canal across one of the Isthmuses of Central America. However, the Treaty of 1850 was a great barrier in her way. By the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850, Great Britain and the U.S.A. had agreed that in the event of the construction of the Panama Canal, neither party should obtain exclusive control over it.
However, on account of the acquisition of colonies in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, the U.S.A. felt that she must have the sole possession of the canal. President Theodore Roosevelt was able to persuade the British Government to give up its special position by cancelling the Treaty of 1850 and by substituting a new agreement for it.
This was done by the Hay-Pauncefoote Treaty of 1901 by which the British Government recognised the right of the U.S.A. to construct and fortify a canal across the Isthmus of Panama under her own exclusive jurisdiction. The American Congress was divided between the advocates of Nicaragua and the Panama Isthmuses.
However, the Congress authorised the President to build the canal through Panama if a satisfactory treaty could be made with the Republic of Columbia or otherwise through Nicaragua. Secretary Hay offered Columbia a lump sum of $25 million with an annual rental of a quarter of a million for the right of way.
The offer was accepted by the Columbian Minister and a treaty was signed at Washington. However, there was a lot of opposition in Columbia itself and the result was that the Congress of Columbia almost unanimously rejected the Treaty. President Roosevelt took up the challenge and in a message to the American Congress, advocated the seizure of the Isthmus of Panama and the building of the Canal without waiting for further negotiations. He defended his high-handed action on the ground that such a step was necessary in the interests of civilization.
The people of Panama, who had revolted more than once against the Central Government of Columbia, were disappointed at the rejection of the Treaty. The representatives of the French Company who had commenced the digging of the canal and who hoped to get compensation of 40 million dollars were also disappointed.
However, there was a Treaty of 1846 between the U.S.A. and Columbia by which the U.S.A. had guaranteed the neutrality of Isthmus of Panama and the sovereignty of Columbia. The U.S.A. had intervened more than once to prevent insurrections in Columbia.
However, the situation was completely changed and a new policy was made necessary. Roosevelt himself was in favour of the revolt of the people of Panama against Columbia. He wrote thus to a friend “Privately, I freely say to you that I should be delighted if Panama were an independent State or if it made itself so at this moment; but for me to say so publicly would amount to an instigation of revolt and therefore I cannot say it.”
The rebel leaders of Panama were encouraged. An American battleship was sent to Colon with orders “to prevent the landing of any armed force, either Government or insurgent, at any point within 50 miles of Panama.” As the only access to the Isthmus was by sea, the measure was intended to create a situation favourable to a revolution.
The expected revolution did take place in Panama and three days after, the Republic of Panama was recognised by the United States. A treaty was signed with the new Republic by which the U.S.A. secured the required strip on very favourable terms. Undoubtedly, the whole of the Panama affair was a good thing for the people of Panama, the French stock-holders, the U.S.A. and the general interests of civilization itself.
However, the people of Columbia bitterly resented it. Roosevelt acknowledged the part played by him in securing the Isthmus and defended his actions as wise and necessary. Later on, some compensation was paid to Columbia as well. The work of the construction of the Panama Canal was pushed forward with great energy and eagerness and the canal was completed in 1914 at a cost of 400 million dollars.
10. Boundary dispute with Canada:
The U.S.A. purchased Alaska from Russia in 1867. For a long time, Alaska was neglected on account of its distance. However, the discovery of gold mines in 1897 brought her to limelight. The boundary between Alaska and Canada was defined as “lying 30 miles behind the windings of the coast.” The Canadians claimed that the 30 miles were to be measured from the narrow bays and thus they were to have the right to deep water. The Americans regarded their claim as baseless. Theodore Roosevelt was not prepared to refer the matter to arbitration as he felt that arbitrators usually compromised and U.S.A. had a very good claim.
He offered to refer the question to a joint commission but at the same time he made it known that in case the members of the joint commission failed to come to a conclusion, the matter would not be arbitrated upon and he would order the troops to Alaska to run to the line which he regarded as the correct one.
In these circumstances, the joint commission was set up and the matter was decided in favour of the U.S.A. as a majority of the commissioners voted for it. Roosevelt was criticized in England and the U.S.A. for appointing on the commission those persons whose views on the controversy were already well known.
11. Santo Domingo:
Santo Domingo was heavily in debt and Roosevelt appointed in 1905 an American Receiver of Customs in that island. The result was that a virtual protectorate was established over Domingo. The danger of foreign intervention to collect debt was removed by the Hague Conference of 1907 by accepting the Calvo doctrine. It provided that the creditor Power was not to collect debts by force until arbitration had been refused by the debtor State.
12. Russo-Japanese War:
Theodore Roosevelt intervened in the Russo-Japanese war. It is pointed out that both Russia and Japan were exhausted by the war but neither Power was willing to talk of peace on account of prestige politics. Partly on humanitarian grounds and partly with a view to safeguarding the American interests, Roosevelt offered to mediate and bring about peace.
The result was that the peace conference was held at Portsmouth (in New Hampshire) and Roosevelt remained in close touch with the deliberations. He was able to persuade Japan to give up the idea of a war-indemnity in the form of money. He also persuaded Russia to give to Japan the lower part of the Island of Sakhalin. It was in this way that the danger in the East was removed. However, Japan maintained that she was deprived of the legitimate fruits of her victory. The result was that there was a lot of tension between the two countries after 1905.
A large number of Japanese migrated to the western coast of the U.S.A. every year and there was a demand in the U.S.A. to stop their immigration. In 1906, matters were precipitated by the school authorities of San Francisco by closing the schools to Japanese children.
After a lot of trouble, a compromise was arrived at and it was decided to exclude only those Japanese from the ordinary schools who were above 16 years of age. Secretary Root exchanged notes with the Japanese Ambassador at Washington by which Japan promised to prevent the immigration to America of coolie labourers and respect the status quo in China. This “gentleman’s agreement” of 1908 was a diplomatic victory for the U.S.A.
President Roosevelt established a big fleet and ordered it to go on a voyage around the world. While making that decision, he did not wait for the grant of funds by the Congress. He knew full well that if the fleet reached the Pacific the Congress would be forced to grant money to bring it back. The voyage of the American fleet was a great success.
President Roosevelt emphasized the new bonds of common interest between the U.S.A. and Great Britain in these words: “One practical problem of statesmanship must be to keep on good terms with the Japanese and their kinsmen on the mainland of Asia, and yet to keep the white men in America and Australia out of home contact with them.
It is equally to the interest of the British Empire and of the United States that there should be no immigration in mass from Asia to Australia or to North America. It can be prevented, and an entirely friendly feeling between Japan and the English-speaking people preserved, if we act with sufficient courtesy and at the same time with sufficient resolution.”
13. Algeciras Conference:
The U.S.A. also participated in the Algeciras Conference of 1906. It is pointed out that the essential negotiations for the Conference were conducted in Washington and the plan finally adopted at the Algeciras Conference was signed by Secretary Root. The negotiations were helped by the close personal friendship between President Roosevelt and the Ambassadors of Germany and France at Washington. Roosevelt used all his powers of persuasion to prove to the German Ambassador the dangers of a war.
The American delegate at the Conference refused to support the Austrian and German plan for a division of Morocco into virtual spheres of influence and proposed a plan of its own prepared by Secretary Root. That plan was adopted with minor alterations.
14. World War I:
When the World War I broke out in 1914, the ex-President Roosevelt condemned the German invasion of Belgium and urged upon the American Government to intervene. However, President Wilson maintained for a time an attitude of “watchful waiting”. In 1917, he declared war against Germany when the latter began an unrestricted submarine warfare which led to the loss of the Lusitania and American lives.
The entry of the U.S.A. into the war on behalf of the Allies turned the scales against Germany. After the ending of the war in 1918, President Wilson played an important part in the peace settlement. It was on his insistence that the Covenant of the League of Nations was embodied in the Treaty of Versailles.
15. Washington Conference:
In 1921 was held the Washington Conference to which were invited Great Britain, Japan, France, Italy, China, etc. Its object was to limit the armaments and also discuss the affairs of the Pacific and the Far East.
Three treaties were signed at Washington. By one treaty, the U.S.A., Great Britain, France and Japan agreed to respect the rights of one another in the Pacific and also to consult one another in case of any dispute.
Another treaty provided for naval parity between Great Britain and the U.S.A. The strength of the Japanese navy was fixed at 60% of the American and British navy. The strength of the French and Italian Navies was fixed at 35%. The parties also agreed to maintain the status quo in the Pacific.
By the third treaty, all the nine Powers participating in the Washington Conference pledged themselves to respect the independence and integrity of China and not take advantage of her weak position. The main object of the Washington Conference was to put a check on the growing power of Japan. Although Japan submitted at that time, she had her own way later on.
In 1931, Japan attacked Manchuria and occupied it in due course of time. The U.S.A. was upset. She offered her services to stop the Japanese aggression. She took part in the proceedings of the League of Nations on the question of Manchuria. In spite of that, Japan had her own way in Manchuria and it was completely conquered. The U.S.A. could do nothing as the other Powers did not co-operate with her.
During the 1930’s, the U.S.A. resorted to neutrality legislation by which she tried to keep out of the arena of the war. Even after the outbreak of the World War II in 1939 she enter the war but merely helped England, France and other countries. She was dragged into the war by the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour in 1941. She was largely instrumental in the defeat of the Axis Powers in 1945.