5 Causes of the Russian Revolution!
There were several causes for the outbreak of the Russian Revolution. The then prevailing condition of Russia was largely responsible for the revolution.
A brief description about this is given below.
1. Autocratic Rule of the Czars:
Czar Alexander II brought some reforms in Russia and became famous among all. But after him Czar Alexander III and Czar Nicholas II became despotic. During their reign the political organisations like-Meer, Jemstvo and Duma had lost their political powers. The Czarist autocracy flamed the fire of unrest among the labourers, peasants, intellectuals and students of Russia. In course of time, public unrest increased in Russia. Thus, hatred towards the Czardom began.
2. The Policy of Russification:
Czar Alexander III was not only a despotic ruler but he also followed the policy of Russification of all the systems. His son Czar Nicholas II also followed his policy. He declared ‘One Czar, One Church, One Russia’. According to this Policy, of the Czarist rule, only the Catholic religion and the Russian language were introduced in Russia.
Even in Poland, Lithuania and Finland and other non- Russian regions which were under the Russian domination, the Russian language was introduced. On the other hands, the students of these regions were not allowed to read in the Russian Schools and Colleges. This Russification Policy of Czar Nicholas II created an environment of unrest in the whole of Russia.
3. The Social System:
The Russian Society was divided into two classes before the Revolution. They were the rich and the poor. The nobles, feudal lords and the rich belonged to the rich class. The peasants, labourers and serfs belonged to the poor class. These societies were imbalanced. No class could be happy. Czar Alexander II emancipated the ‘Serfdom’.
The feudal lords were annoyed as they had lost their lands. The Liberated Serfs became depressed as they could not get lands beyond their hope. The labourers and workers became unable to live their lives as they got very low wages. The slaves became unhappy as they had got very low salary.
The peasants were the happiest class. The political parties became unhappy as they were debarred from all the privileges. The people of all sections of the society were fading of with the Czarist rule.
4. The Rise of Nihilism:
The rise of Nihilism influenced the Russian Revolution of 1917. The preachers of Nihilism came forward to destroy the prevailing rule, society and religious faith and to create a new world. Its chief aim was the downfall of Czardom in Russia. They influenced the people through their organisations to destroy the prevailing system of Russia. This created a suitable environment for the Russian Revolution.
5. Influence of Industrial Revolution:
The Industrial Revolution helped to flame the fire of Revolution in Russia. In the construction of Trans-Siberia and Trans-Caspian, in railways, many workers of Russia were engaged. After the construction of these two railways, many factories were established in Russia with several ‘Labour Organisations’. In course of time, consciousness increased among the labourers and they dreamt to free Russia from the clutches of Czardom.