Monarchical form of government, established by Remulus and Remus could not prevail in Rome for a long time.
The Romans dethroned the Etruscan ruler Tarquinius Superbus and laid down the foundation of a Republican government. The struggle between Patricians and Plebians determined the course of Roman history.
The end of the struggle between these two classes brought glory to Rome. In different wars like Italian War, Gaul War, Latin War and Samnite Wars, Rome became victorious. The Roman Republic grew from strength to strength.
The administration of Rome was guided by a constitution. As per the provision of this constitution, the military administration and the highest executive administration was vested with two Consuls. The Romans thought that if powers will be concentrated in one hand, the Consul will be a dictator.
That is why they appointed two consuls. Both of them were cautious about their power. If by chance they differed from each other on a particular issue, the Senate interfered in that matter. The two Consuls were appointed only for one year. It was predicted that they might be dictator, if they remain in power for more than a year. That is why these two Consuls were elected only for a year.
In this way, the people of Rome brought the highest authority of the country under their control. During emergency, one of the Consuls acted as Magistrate Populi or Dictator for six months. He maintained law and order by awarding condime punishment. That magistrate Populi returned to his own position of Consul when normalcy was restored.
The general administration of Rome was not only vested with Consuls but also with Praetor. He was considered as one of the key persons of the administration of Rome. He played a vital role in the smooth discharge of administration in Rome. He helped the Consul during war as his trusted lieutenant.
He looked after warfare, supply of war materials and food to soldiers, organisation of army and obeyed the order of Consul in the war. He gave his expert opinion to the Consul at the time of need. The Consul in association with the Praetor took important decision regarding war and peace. All these activities made him popular. He was elected only for one year.
The Censor paid attention towards the economy of Roman Republic. After the end of every five years, they accomplished the task of Census in Rome. They also prepared the list of property of the citizens of Rome and levied tax on the people. They worked with a mission to collect revenue for the treasury of Rome. Due to the economic policy of the Roman Republic became strong. The Censurers were elected for five years.
Another integral part of the Roman Republic was Questor. They were appointed as treasurers. They also paid attention for the expenditure of money. They also verified the papers relating to property. They played an important role to implement criminal laws in the field of administration. The Questors were also elected only for a year.
The Aedil was responsible for the maintenance of law and order in the society. He looked after the works of the police and helped in checking crimes inside the society. He also looked after the municipal administration. He tried his best to bring administration very close to the people so that the public could feel its direct result. He was also elected for a year.
In the domain of administration in Rome, Senate was the most important organ. It consisted of 300 members. The experienced and aged people were its members. All of them were its life members. Although the Consul was the chief of the administration, he was regulated by the Senate. The main work of the Senate was to advise the Consul.
Besides this, it was regulating the foreign policy, income and expenditure, recruitment of army, provincial administration, defence of the country etc. The honesty, sincerely, ability and sense of dedication of the senate members contributed a lot for the growth of the Roman Republic.
Each and every law became legitimate after receiving the approval of the Senate. So, the Roman people respected the Senate. As a Legislative Assembly, the Senate regulated the administration of Rome.
Generally the Senators were nobles. It was suspected that these people might do harm to common people. Thus, to protect the Plebians from the tyranny of Patricians, the Tribune was formed. It was again thought out that if one man is appointed in this ‘post, he might not be impartial. That is why two persons were appointed as Tribunes.
They were always active to protect the common people from the wrath of Magistrate or Questor and impart justice. They contributed a lot for the welfare of the people protecting them always from the clutches of the nobles.
The Plebians also played vital role in the administration of Rome. A National Assembly named ‘Comitia Tributa’ was formed in Rome by the Plebians. In the first stage, the laws framed by this Assembly were holding good over the Plebians. Later on, the laws framed by this Comitia Tributa were also applicable for the Patricians.
One of the important works of this Comitia Tributa was to appoint the Tribunes. It always looked after the well being of the common people. That is why; its role in the administration of Rome was quite significant.
Another National Assembly in Rome was ‘Comitia Centuriata’. Many Roman nobles were its members. This acted more or less as a judiciary. It acted as a court of appeal. It heard the charges brought against the Counsils. If they are found guilty, they were awarded punishment by this Assembly. That is why, Comitia Centuriata played a vital role in case of the administration of the Roman Republic.
In fact, the administration of ancient Rome was unique. It was well regulated and balanced. No Consul could venture to be a dictactor. If anybody tried to misutilise the power, then Comitia Centuriata punished him. The Tribune saved the Plebians from the tyranny of Patricians. The co-operation between the Patricians and Plebians ushered a new age in Rome. For their administration, the ancient Romans are famous in history.