Rana Kumbha (1438-68):
Rana Kumbha was a very brave and talented military commander and ruler. He made his mark in the political as well as cultural field.
Military and political achievements:
Rana Kumbha succeeded his father Rana Mokal in 1433 A.D. with the assistance of the Bhil chiefs. He had to meet the challenge of several intrigues.
However, within a very short period of his accession, he was able to overcome all his internal troubles with great diplomacy and bravery. Rana Kumbha conquered states like Bundi, Kota, Chatsu, Malpura, Amber, Dungerpur etc. Majority of these states accepted the suzerainty of Rana Kumbha and came under his political influence.
Rana Kumbha annexed Sambhar, Didwana, Mandore, Nagaur, Ranthambore, Sirohi, Gagran, Ajmer, Mandalgarh, Abu, Toda etc. to his empire. Rana Kumbha defeated Sultan Mahmud Khalji of Malwa. According to inscriptions he brought Mahmud Khalji as a prisoner and after keeping him in prison for six months, sent him back to his Kingdom. According to some historians, this liberality on his part proved quite dear to him.
After making military preparations, Mahmud Khalji invaded Mewar. He destroyed the temple at Kumbhalgarh but failed to conquer Mewar. Afterwards the Rana defeated the combined armies of the Sultan Mahmud of Malwa and the ruler of Gujarat. The Rana Kumbha was able to defend his entire hereditary state and all the conquered areas.
Cultural achievements of Rana Kumbha:
Rana Kumba was a great patron of art and literature. He was a great musician himself and took a keen interest in music. He was a great Veena player. He wrote works like Sangit Raj, Sangit Mimansa, ‘Sangit Ratnakar’ and Sudprabandh.
Kumbha erected a Victory Tower at Chittor as a mark of victory of his conquests. He consolidated the fortification of Chittor and constructed a road running through its seven doors.
He constructed the city of Basantpur. He built several inns, palaces, ponds, schools, and temples.
For the defence of the Kingdom, he built five forts of Kumbhalgarh, Achalgarh, Maddan, Kolana and Vairat.
Rana Kumba gave patronage to many craftsmen and sculptors.
He also patronised great scholars. Mahesh and Atri, the composers of the inscriptions of Victory Tower flourished in his court.
Sad end of Rana Kumbha:
This great ruler of Mewar i.e. Rana Kumbha who proved a formidable ruler against his opponent rulers lost his life at the hands of his own son.
Sangram Singh Alias Rana Sanga (1509-28):
Rana Sanga, the grandson of Rana Kumbha was a ferocious brave Rajput ruler who fought several battles. He lost one eye, one arm and had about 88 scars of wounds on his body. He established his supremacy over almost all Rajput states in Rajasthan.
Rana Sanga fought successfully against the rulers of Gujarat and Malwa. He captured the ruler of Malwa who had been wounded and kept at Chittor till his wounds were healed. He also defeated the Delhi Sultan Ibrahim Lodi in 1519. It is said that he was one of the Indian rulers and nobles who invited Babur to invade India.
It is not clear whether any understanding was arrived at between Babur and Rana Sanga. He lost to Babur in the battle of Khanua in 1527. Rana Sanga escaped and wanted to renew the conflict with Babur. However, he was prisoned by his own nobles who considered such a course dangerous and suicidal. Maharana Pratap also belonged to this dynasty.