Read this article to learn about the final years of the Uigur’s.
When the Western Turkish tribes had begun to break up some remnants of the Bukin tribe joined the Uigurs and after the attack by the Khirgiz they settled in the regions near Barkul.
For some time they lived in Karashar, but moved subsequently to Kang Chau with their Prince.
Seeing their plight the Emperor Swen Chung (747-60) took pity on them and sent his emissary to confer the title of Kagan on their leader.
By the time the Emperor Ee-Chang (860-74) came to the throne, the Uigurs had grown strong enough to aid the Chinese in driving the Tibetans out of Kansu, Jucha and other towns and under the command of their general Bukku they seized the Tibetan Governor Ke Lon in 866 and sent his head to the Chinese Emperor.
This is practically the last that we hear of the Uigurs in history.
Some Chinese writers have mentioned that till the end of the 9th century they served in the army and that Uigur traders came to the Chinese border to exchange horses and jewels for Chinese silk and tea. During the rule of the Emperors of the Panch dynasty (which replaced the Than dynasty in 904) we hear of Uigur chiefs coming to the Chinese court to pay taxes.
They addressed the Chinese rulers as ‘uncle’, because many of the Chinese princesses had been given to them in marriage.
In the 9th century the Uigur influence extended from the Turphan to the bend of the Hwang Ho and centered mainly in and about Pujang, east of Turphan and Kang Chau and north of the Koknor. Sometime after 911a Uigur cheif, known to the Chinese as Wang Chang Me, sent presents to the Chinese Court. The Chinese sent an ambassador to confer on him the title of Khan, but by the time he arrived the Uigur chief had died and so his younger brother Chang Tigin was made Kagan.
In 926 Aturyuk became the Khan. The following year another chief, Wang Chen Yu, sent presents to the Emperor and the Title of Khan was given to him. He continued to rule till 960 and in 962 his son paid tribute to the Chinese Court.
Describing the land and customs of the Uigurs, Chinese writers have stated that the area in which they lived contained valuable stones, horses, camels with a single hump, deer and diamonds. Cotton, wheat and other food-grains as well as onions were grown there.
The Khan lived in a large palace, his queen was known as Devi and the Minister as Meyluk. Those who entered the court were obliged to bare their heads. The women tied their hair in big knots on the top of their head and covered them with bags of red silk, while married women wore felt caps.
In 964 and 65 the Uigurs sent ambassador to the Chinese Court. Also they sent presents consisting of precious stones, amber, deer and ox-tails.
In 977 the Uigur occupied the regions which had once been homeland of the Yuchis, that is to say, the area from Turphan to Kang So Chao. In this same year the Chinese Emperor is reported to have issued instructions for money to be sent to his son-in-law, the Uigur Khan, for the purchase of horses and precious stones.
In 988, a number of Uigur families killed their king and came to settle in the Alashan mountains, but other people of the tribe did not follow them. In 996, the Kagan, Khan Chau, offered his services in the fight against the Tanguts which was then engaging the Chinese Emperor of the Hiya dynasty. But shortly after that the Hiya ruler killed Khan Chau.
In 1001, presents were again sent to the Chinese court by the Uigur Khan – very likely the Bogara Khan — Harun. His emissary stated that Uigur territory extended from the west of Hwang Ho to Sui Sang (the snow mountains east of Issikul), but actually the region was dotted with a number of independent kingdoms.
Balashpur (Sujiya) was the capital of the Bogara Khan. In 1004 A. D. and 1007, ambassadors were again sent with presents. In 1007 a Buddhist priest who accompanied the ambassador, requested the Emperor to permit the establishment of a Buddhist monastery in the Chinese Capital, but as the early Soong Emperors did not wish to encourage Buddhism the prayer was not granted.
At this time Mongolia, Manchuria and North-East China, were part of the powerful Khittan empire and it was because of this that China was sometimes called Khitai. According to Khittan writers a Buddhist priest from India was sent in 1001 to the Khittan court by the Uigurs.
In 1009 and 1-011 also priests were sent to request that a Buddhist temple be built in Shansi. This shows clearly that till the 10th century Buddhism had considerable influence in East Central Asia. Till the 11th century the Uigurs lived a nomadic life but by the 12th century they had settled down and begun to trade with Shansi and the neighbouring regions. The Khittan rulers considered them to be their subjects.