The philosophers, writers and the great men played an important role in the Russian Revolution.
The writings of Leo Tolstoy, Maxim Gorky, George Plekhanov, Dastovosky etc. created new consciousness in the Society.
Among them the writings of Karl Marx occupied an important place. He opined out that the power of the capitalists should be destroyed.
He also opined that the labourers, peasants and other lower classes who worked for the nation, should be the real owner of the lands and factories. His revolutionary ideas were reflected in his two famous books the ‘Das Capital’ and the ‘Communist Manifesto’. He gave his clarion call to the workers-
“Workers of the World Unite! You have nothing to loose but tears.” Marx’s socialistic philosophy and the revolutionary ideas of other writers deeply inspired the people of Russia. They took oath to destroy the despotic Czarist rule in Russia.
The Russo-Japanese War of 1904 was a great insult to Czardom. In this war Russia was defeated by a small nation like Japan. After this, the ‘Treaty of Portsmouth’ was concluded between Russia and Japan in 1905.
According to this treaty, Russia was forced to give the Port Arthur and a portion Sawlin Island to Japan. This Russo-Japanese War opened the screen of the weakness of Czardom. It inspired the people to destroy the – Czardom in Russia.
Demand for a Constitutional Government:
The Russian people continuously demanded for a constitutional government but Czar Nicholas II did not pay any attention to their demand. In November 1904, the Zemstvoes met at St. Petersburg and invited the Czar to grant them the freedom of opinion, right to conduct meetings and form Organisations. But Czar Nicholas II bluntly refused their demands. Thus they called the labourers for strike. The students at St. Petersburg cried, ‘Down with Autocracy’. It helped the Russians to be revolutionary.
The Role of Czarina and the Holy Devil:
Czar Nicholas II’s queen Alexandra played an important role for the outbreak of the Russian Revolution. The rise of fanued the fire Rasputin during that time. Rasputin was a thief and was banished to Siberia fanued the fire. From Siberia he returned as a monk and by his influence stayed in the court of Czar Nicholas II. As he cured the son of Czar who was suffering from paralysis, he became a dear person of the queen.
He influenced the Czar to award severe punishments to the innocent people. The subjects appealed to the Czar regarding the falsehood of the man which the Czar did not hear due to the influence of Czarina Alexandra. So the people were annoyed with the Czarina and Rasputin and nick named Rasputin as the ‘Holy Devil’.
Exploited and irritated by the Czarist rule, a large number of workers under the leadership of Father Gapon marched towards the royal palace on January 22, 1905 in order to present a petition before the Czar in a peaceful manner. But the troops of Czar did not allow them to enter into the palace. The Czar ordered the troops to fire upon the innocent workers.
The troops fired upon them mercilessly which resulted in a large number of deaths of innocent men. It was called as the ‘Bloody Sunday’. Strikes were made in the whole of Russia. It inspired the army and Duke Sergos, the cousin of Czar was murdered.
Influence of the First World War:
The influence of the First World War paved the way for the Russian Revolution. The Russian people opposed the participation of Russia in the First World War. In this War, Russia was defeated by Germany. At this critical juncture, there was scarcity of food in Russia. Thus tremendous unrest among the people began. The revolutionaries murdered Rasputin at this time. The peasants also joined the Revolution. The workers also began strikes. The soldiers also left the army. Russia had heard the footsteps of Revolution.
Role of Lenin:
Vladmir Lenin appeared as the chief architect of the Russian Revolution. He established the Bolshevik organisation in the workers became the members. Annoyed by his activities, the Czar expelled him to Saiberia, but lived in Western Europe he had the Secret relation with the Bolshevik Organization.
At this time there was the famine in the industrial city of Petrograd. On March 8, 1917 in the Alexander theatre Hall of Petrogard a drama was being. The rich class of Russia was busy to enjoy the play. On the other hand, before a staged bread shop, the women were standing in queues and waiting for bread for their working and tired husbands.
When the waiting was intolerable, they raised the slogan ‘Peace, Bread and Land’. At that time, Lenin was passing through the way and by his speech he inspired the people to raise voice against the Czar. And thus began the Russian Revolution.
When the Revolutionaries marched towards the theatre, the Czar ordered to fife upon them, but instead of obeying his order, the soldiers also joined their hands with the workers. This vast procession of the workers marched towards the royal palace. On March 15, 1917, Czar Nicholas II abdicated his throne and fled away from Russia. The Czarist rule came to an end in Russia.
After this, under the leadership of Kerensky, a temporary Government was established, but it did not survive for long time. At last, on November 17, 1917, a new Government was established under the leadership of Lenin. Revolution took place in October, it is known as the ‘Great October Revolution’.
The effects of the Russian Revolution were far-reaching. Like other revolutions, it also changed the movement of history.
First, the Russian Revolution put an end to the supremacy of Czardom and laid the foundation of an ideal Socialist State. Marxism became the ideology of Russia. Marxism was reflected in the new constitution of Russia. Hence the Russian government was managed by the constitutional System.
Secondly, there were some changes in the social and economic field of Russia. Capitalism came to an end after the revolution. Competitions in the field of industry also ended. The lands, mines and factories were nationalised. The ‘Farmers Guilds’ were established in order to manage the distribution of products.
Thirdly, Communism was established after the Russian Revolution. The ideology-‘Each according to his capacity and each according to his need’ been reflected in Russia.
Fourthly, the Russian Revolution changed the name of Russia. It was named as the Union Soviet Socialist Republic or the USSR.
Finally, after the revolution, Russia emerged as a Super Power in the world. During the reign of Stalin, the economic and military powers of Russia increased. After the First World War, the industrial nations were influenced by Communism.
The result of the Russian Revolution was far reaching. It freed Russia from the clutches of the tyrannical rule of the Czars. Coming under the table guidance of Lenin and Stalin, Russia grew from strength to strength and became a Supper Power in World. This Russian Revolution had influenced the civil world of China.