Important Organs of the United Nations Organization!
The Structure of UNO has been formed with the following organs. These organs are the ‘General Assembly’, ‘Security Council’, ‘Economic and Social Council’, ‘International Court of Justice’ and ‘Trusteeship Council’.
The General Assembly:
The chief organ of the UNO is General Assembly. It consists of the members of the UNO. The maximum number of representatives from each member state is five. But each of the countries has only one vote. The General Assembly is like the World Parliament. It ordinarily meets once in a year. In case of emergency a special session is held. It controls the works of the ‘Economic and Social Council’ and ‘Trusteeship Council’. It also appoints General Secretary and amends the UN Charter.
The Security Council:
The Security Council consists of 15 member states. The Security Council constitutes having five permanent members. These members are the United States of America, Great Britain, France, Russia and China. The permanent members have the power to ‘Veto’ any of the decision being taken by the Council.
This means that even if the issue is being supported by a majority, it cannot be settled. It implies that there has to be a consensus of all the five permanent members for a decision to be taken. It appoints the Justice of the International Court of Justice. It has also power for amendment in UNO Charter. However, the Security Council plays a predominant role in sustaining world peace.
The Economic and Social Council:
Another main organ of the UNO is the Economic and Social Council This Council has 54 members. One third or 18 members are elected every year by the General Assembly for a term of three years. This council gives proposal for international Economic, Social, Cultural, Educational and Health Problems.
This Council also tries restlessly to wipe out poverty from the world. ‘The International Labour Organisation’ (ILO), ‘Food And Agricultural Organisation’ (FAO), ‘World Health Organisation’ (WHO), ‘United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation’ (UNESCO) and ‘International Monetary Fund (IMF) are the prominent organs of this Council.
The Trusteeship Council:
The Trusteeship Council is also another part of the UNO. All the permanent members of the Security Council are the members of this council. But they cannot apply their veto power in this council. The Trusteeship Council aims at helping the countries through different measures. It coordinates among various regions and members.
It also receives applications from several trusteeship regions and takes steps for the improvement of the lot of the people of these regions. It looks after various welfare projects of the trusteeship regions and guides them in achieving success in these measures.
The International Court of Justice:
The International Court of Justice consists of 15 Judges elected by the Security Council and the General Assembly. According to the UN Charter, each one of them has to be from a different country. The court gives advisory opinion on legal matters to the organs and special agencies of the UNO when solicited.
It also considers legal disputes brought before it by nations. It is located at The Hague. A case in this court can be discussed in the presence of minimum nine judges. There is no fixed age for the retirement of a judge of the International Court of Justice. Of course, this international court has not achieved great success in many cases till today.
The Secretariat is the prominent organ of the UNO. The day-to- day functioning of the ‘UN is done by the Secretariats whose head is Secretary General. He is appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council. As the Head Office of the UNO is situated at New York, the Secretariat also functions from that place.
It organises the International Conference to solve the international problems. It reflects a vivid picture on Human Rights, Disarmament and Development etc. It gives information to the mass media on behalf of the UNO on various aspects.
With the establishment of the UNO, a new sun of world peace appeared in the horizon. It tried to create a beautiful world full of peace, prosperity and tranquility. Besides International Court of Justice, all other organs of the UNO are situated in New York. Six languages like English, French, Spanish, Russian, Arabia and China are used in the UNO. Thus, the UNO is committed to establish World Peace.