Some of the most important causes of the failure of the Arabs a permanent rule are as follows:
The first and foremost cause of the failure of the Arabs to precede more after their conquest of Sind was the premature death of Muhammad-bin-Qasim.
He was the man who had conquered Sind and Multan. He had also planned for further conquest. He was a man with a mission. He could have achieved some more success for his nation. But with his death the Arabs became leaderless and their enthusiasm died down.
Secondly, A long and bitter quarrel for the Khalifat between the Umayyad’s and the Abbasids put the Arabs into a state of confusion. The quarrel had its impact in Sind which as a result reduced morale and fighting spirit of the Arabs in this country.
Thirdly, the character and way of life of the Arabs changed owing to the cultural revolution of Baghdad under Khalifa Harun-al- Rashid. Speculative philosophy end luxurious life made them unfit for great military exploits.
Fourthly, with the passage of time the religious enthusiasm, universal brotherhood sanity among the Arabs disappeared. It had happened owing to the racial, religious and political factions among them.
Fifthly, the Arab domination came to an end with the rise of the Turks. The Turks after embracing Islam had become powerful. They had made the Arab supremacy down and degraded.
Lastly, the province of Sind was not a proper base for the Arabs for their military operations. As it is situated in one corner of India it was difficult on the part of the Arabians to proceed against their powerful neighbours. The Rajput Kingdoms on its north and east were powerful and prosperous.
They did not allow further invasion of the Arabs. Besides, Sind was financially weak and undeveloped which could not supply adequate resources to the Arabs for longer and larger invasions. For all those reasons the Arabs remained confined to Sind and their conquest proved to be mere episode in history.
However, the historians have viewed that the Arab conquest of Sind though appear insignificant had produced some tangible results. After this, a majority of the population of Sind embraced Islam and gave up their ancestral religion. Islamism, thus, acquired a permanent footing on Indian soil. The future invaders took it deep into India and at last it became a prominent religion in our country. Its culture becomes a part and parcel of Indian culture.