This article provides information about various: Stages of History: Primary, Secondary and History Syllabus as recommended by Ministry of Education, India.
I. Content of history at primary stage:
At the primary stage the history is closely related to the abilities and characteristics of the age of children.
The work should start with the realities which are near to the children in space and time. They be introduced to local traditions, the problems faced by their fore-fathers etc.
They should also be given a glimpse of the life of the earliest man. At this stage children should also be made aware of the contributions of great men in different fields of life. To achieve it the syllabus should have stories about heroes of war and prophets of peace, men of letters and pioneers of science, saints and sages, artists and patriots etc.
Children should also be given a glimpse into the social conditions and elements of daily social life of ancient times. It will remind them of the value of daily work of ordinary people and will make them aware of the change in the order of things with the progress of time.
II. Content of history at secondary stage:
The content of history at this stage of education, as suggested by C.P. Hill, should consist of national history with special emphasis on those topics which help to an understanding of present day problems or which enable the students to note the differences the similarities between life in earlier times and life today.
In addition to national history some topics about the history of the countries, geographically contiguous and culturally related should also be included in syllabus.
C.P. Hill says, “National history should always lie taught against international background…Developments at home should be related to external events… the cultural relationships between different nations and areas should be made clear. . .There should be frequent comparisons of social change.. .” There are teachers who prefer one independent outline course in world history at this stage.
A group of others may like to introduce topics or problems such as the development of government and history of religions, the story of tolerance, the ideas of liberty and law while a different kind of proposal comes from third group of teachers.
They want in addition to learning their own national history pupils should study in some detail the history of nations and regions which are dissimilar to their own land. Thus as C.P. Hill suggests we can weave around the core of national history, the fabric of social history, religious history, man’s struggle for toleration and peace international cooperation, etc.
III. History syllabus as recommended by ministry of education:
The Ministry of Education, Government of India, has published the contents of history in Indian schools for grades one to eleven. A brief enumeration of these contents will not be out of place here.
The students should be introduced to the following facts at this stage:
(1) Local Traditions-stories relating to local social workers saints religious places, historical places, local fairs, etc.
(2) Stories of the ancient man-stories about food, utensils, tools, ways of living of the cave man and the people of stone age and the copper age.
(3) Practical work- (a) visit to local places like museums, etc., and (b) making clay models of historical utensils, toys and tools.
At this stage local traditions and stories about ancient culture should be included in the syllabus. For example-a broad view of the local traditions taught in class I; stories about Babylon, Mohenjo-Daro, Arkpolis, Pyramids, etc.; life of the pupils in Ashramas and its comparison with Chinese, Greek and Roman life Practical work as in the first grade. Besides; preparation of models, coins of clay and album of historical pictures should be done at this age.
Stories for ancient India, for example, Rama, Krishna, Buddha, Mahabir, Alexander, Ashoka, Kanishka, Chandragupta, Vikramaditya etc. These stories are to be presented in a chronological order.
Practical work-Pupils should be helped to understand distance and direction and initiated in map-drawing. They should be taught how to make an album of historical pictures, dramatise events and do craft work.
Stories from medieval India, e.g., Prophet Muhammad, Muslim invasions on India, Prithviraj, All-ud din Khilji, Feroz Tuglaq, Chaitanya, Nanak, Kabir, Krishna, Deo Rai, Akbar, Chandbibi, Maharana Pratap, Aurangzeb, Shivaji, Nadir Shah, Baji Rao I and Baji Rao II, etc.
Practical work- As in class III, children’s albums should contain pictures of art and architecture of the Mughal period.
Stories from modern India; Clive, Mir Kasim, Tipu Sultan, Nana Fadnavis, Ranjit Singh, Jhansi Ki Rani, Martyrs of First War of Independence, Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Syed Ahmed Khan, Vivekanand, Annie Besant, Pheroze Shah Mehta, Surendra Nath Banerjee, Motilal Nehru, Mahatma Gandhi, Subhash Chander Bose, Jawahar Lai Nehru, Sardar Patel, etc.
Evaluation of Indian society from ancient period to the Sultanate with emphasis on economic, social, religious and political aspects the following topics may be included.
(1) Sources of Indian History;
(2) Indus Valley Civilisation;
(3) Aryan Civilisation;
(4) Epic Age;
(5) Jainism & Buddhism;
(6) Alexander’s invasion, the Nandas, the Mauryas;
(7) Maurya-Sythian Civilisation;
(8) Kushan empire;
(9) Gupta empire:-Gupta period-why a golden age?
(10) Invasion of the Huns;
(11) History of South India;
(12) Colonial and cultural expansion;
(13) Rise of Islam;
(14) The slave dynasty;
(15) The Khilji dynasty:
(16) The Tughlaq dynasty;
(17) Bahmani and Vijai Nagar Kingdoms;
(18) The Syed dynasty;
(19) The Lodi dynasty; and
(20) Culture of the Sultanate period and its impact on Indian life
Practical work drawing of time-lines, historical maps, charts, sketches; dramatisation; tour of historical places and visit to museums preparation of clay models
Development of Indian Society from the Mughal period to the Company rule
(1) Invasions of Babur and establishment of Mughal Empire;
(2) Humayun & Sher Shah;
(4) Jehangir and Shah Jehan;
(5) Shah Jehan’s reign-way a golden age?
(6) Aurangzeb and his policy;
(7) Rise of the Marathas;
(8) Coming of the Europeans;
(9) Expansion of British power;
(10) Rise of the Sikhs;
(11) The East India Company-power struggle;
(12) First War of Independence;
(13) Cultural history of the Mughal period; and
(14) State of culture, educational, religious and social reforms during the East India Company’s rule.
Practical work As in Class VI
Modem India the following topics should be included.
(1) Constitutional history;
(2) Development of Indian Administration;
(3) History of freedom struggle;
(4) History of education;
(5) History of Local-self Government;
(6) Economic history;
(7) New India-(history of Post-Independence era.); and
(8) Indian Constitution.
Practical Work- as in the above grades
CLASS’S IX, X, XI:
(1) Critical study of Indian history;
(2) World history, and
(3) Important movements in the west;
(a) Renaissance and Reformation;
(b) French Revolution;
(c) Nationalism in Europe;
(d) Industrial Revolution;
(e) Rise of Socialism;
(f) International organisation-the League of Nations and the U.N.O.
(g) Development of Science.
(4) History of Eastern and South Eastern countries;
(e) Burma and Tibet.
(5) Present problems in India;
(a) History of the progress of science in India;
(b) History of Indian agriculture and its problems^
(c) Industrial Problems;
(d) Language Problem;
(e) Social Problems;
(f) Economic Problems;
(g) Problems of Education.
(a) Drawing of maps;
(b) Use of sources;
(c) Use of newspapers;
(d) Use of historical journals, magazines and papers;
(e) Tour of historical places;
(f) Collection of coins and historical albums;
(g) Drawing of time charts, sketches, and pictorial graphs, etc.