The upcoming discussion will update you about the differences between Vedic culture and Indus civilization.
Vedic culture and Indus civilization form two distinct groups in the history of Indian civilization. Of course, there are scholars like Dr A.D. Pusalkar who contend that the Rigvedic Aryans, probably, formed an important part of the populace of Indus valley and contributed their share to the evolution of that civilization.
Further there is unanimity among scholars that the Dravidians who were the chief architects of the Indus valley civilization participated in building up the Vedic culture, particularly that of the later Vedic age.
In spite of this we hardly find any similarity between these two cultures except that we can say that the basis of both civilizations was primarily their thriving agricultural economy and both worshipped nature in its different forms. But the distinctions between the two are very much clear and that is the reason why these two have been regarded as two distinct groups of civilization in Indian history.
A few differences mentioned below are clear between these two:
1. The Indus valley civilization was a city civilization while the Aryan civilization was a village civilization.
2. The people of both civilizations were, of course, agriculturists, but the Indus valley people were certainly more industrialised and commercialised than the Aryans and carried on brisk trade within the sub-continent as well as with distant countries of the West. And, that was the primary cause of their thriving economy resulting in city-culture.
3. Iron was not known to the Indus valley people while the Aryans used it. The Indus valley made use of only copper and probably bronze as well. That is why their culture belonged to what is called Chalcolithic age (when man used both copper and stone implements) while the Iron age started with the Vedic period.
4. While horse was well known to the Aryans and they used it in their chariots, it was unknown to the Indus valley people and became known to them only when they came in contact with the Aryans.
5. Nandin-bull (humped bull) was probably a sacred animal to the Indus valley people while cow occupied a sacred place among the Aryans.
6. While the gods of the Aryans were mostly males and goddesses occupied only a subordinate position, and that too much later, the Indus valley people certainly provided a high place to the worship of Mother Goddess.
7. The Indus valley people buried their dead while the Aryans burnt them.
8. Fish was included in the diet of the Indus valley people while it was discarded by the Aryans.
9. The script of the Indus valley people was mainly phonetic while the Aryans succeeded in developing Sanskrit literature and its script as well.
10. Performance of Yajnas was a necessary part of the religious life of the Aryans while we find no such religious rituals among the Indus valley people.
11. Probably, idol-worship in some rudimentary form was accepted by the Indus valley people but it was absolutely absent among the Vedic Aryans.
12. Hereditary caste-system and Varna Asram Dharma constituted an essential part of the social system of the later Aryans while these were nonexistent among the Indus valley people.
13. It has been suggested by many scholars that the nature of the state among the Indus valley people was theocratic while the state of the Aryans was purely secular, though, of course, the rulers observed Rajya Dharma.
14. The Indus valley people were not artistic as a whole yet they succeeded in producing fine pottery and a few pieces of sculpture whereas the Aryans though they possessed an artistic temperament failed to leave any signs of such craftsmanship.