The Cold War widened the gap between America and Soviet Russia. One country tried to exert fear in the mind of other. In order to make Europe free from the clutches of Communism, the United States of America created an organisation.
This was known as North Atlantic Treaty Organisation or NATO.
North Atlantic Treaty Organisation was formed in 1949. At first 12 countries like the United States of America, Canada, England, France,
Belgium, Netherland etc. participated in it. In 1952, Greece and Turkey joined NATO. In 1955 West Germany became its member. NATO was really meant to check the Russian influence over the European Countries.
Principles of the NATO:
This treaty includes one Preamble including 14 articles.
The principles of the NATO were:
1. The members of NATO will solve themselves the disputes which arise among them.
2. They will make their relations strong through friendly co-operation.
3. They will help each other for individual as well as Common Security.
4. As far as the Sovereignty was concerned, they will help each other.
5. Any attack on a country of Europe or North America will be treated as attack an whole of Europe and North America.
The objectives of NATO were:
(a) The NATO was meant to create fear psychosis for Soviet Russia.
(b) It warned Russia that if it attacks on any country of Europe or America, then the USA would help that affected country.
(c) This organisation also tried to unite all the countries of Europe and America under one umbrella. It also aimed at economic stability of these countries and advancement in military front.
(d) This organisation also mentally stabilised the European nations.
(e) The real objective of NATO was to save the country of Europe and America which was to be attacked by Russia.
Analysis of NATO:
NATO was internationally criticised. Various historians opine that NATO had encouraged the Cold War.
Secondly, as it did not obey the principles of the UNO, others pointed out fingers at it. Russia said that NATO was established only to terrorise Russia.
Thirdly, NATO was a barrier for world peace. It inspired the countries to bring progress in armaments. (However, the formation of NATO inspired the countries for a race in armament.
Really, NATO was a part of the Cold War. It not only accelerated the Cold War but also encouraged the enmity between America and Russia.)