The CENTO was another black chapter of the cold war. The sole motive behind CENTO was to separate the Middle East from the Communist influence of Soviet Russia.
It was another changed image of Baghdad Pact.
Central Treaty Organisation was the other name of Bagdad Pact. In 1955 Iraq and Turkey signed Baghdad Pact whose aim was to prevent Middle East from the influence of Russian Communism. Later on, England and Pakistan joined it. The USA gave financial help to this Pact. But in 1959 Iraq resigned from Baghdad Pact. Then this organisation was named as ‘Central Treaty Organisation’ or CENTO,
Principles of CENTO:
The CENTO had the following principles:
1. The members of this organisation were to pay attention for their own security and to make the defense of other countries strong.
2. A member country would not interfere in the affairs of other country.
3. The member countries would not keep relation with other countries of the world.
4. This organisation would remain in force for five years.
5. This organisation would be given new shape after the expiry of five years.
Aims and Objectives:
The CENTO had the following objectives:
(a) It was determined to keep Soviet Russia away from the Middle East.
(b) This was also a warning to Soviet Russia and other Arab Countries.
(c) The member countries aspired for help from the United States of America.
(d) It was expected that peace would be established in the Middle East, it would help the growth of trade and commerce among the member countries.
(e) This organisation became successful in projecting the defence system of America and England.
Analysis of CENTO:
In true sense of the term, the CENTO was not successful in achieving its goal. At first, there was no need of such type of organisation in the Middle East.
Secondly, it doubled the anger of Soviet Russia. When Pakistan joined in CENTO, Soviet Russia came closer to India.
Thirdly, the interference of Turkey and England became unbearable by the member states. So, they became annoyed.
Fourthly, America wanted to play an active role in CENTO which neither was nor accepted by the member states.
At last due to the lack of adequate finance, the importance of CENTO in the international affairs was reduced.
End of the Cold War:
The Cold War which went on between the USA and USSR was really very furious. The two Super Powers characterised by subtle military and political strategies marched towards a ruinous race for destructive armaments. These circumstances led to Korean Crisis, Congo Crisis, Cyprus Crisis etc. participating in the disarmament process, they tried to reduce their armaments.
In 1985, Soviet Russia’s President Mikhail Gorbachev’s Perestroika and Glassnost helped a lot in keeping peace in the world. As a result of which in 1991 Soviet Union was divided and Warsaw Pact, also broken into pieces in 1997. The Super Powers refrained from any production of mass destructive arms.
By accepting the invitation of America’s President Ronald Regan, the President of Russia, Gorbachev gave a heart touching speech at White House in America which surprised the whole world. This contributed a lot to the easing of Cold War.
However Cold War wrote a black chapter in the history of the world. It not only divided the whole world into two groups but also pushed the people into constant fear and confusion. After the end of the Cold War the Peace Process is going on to achieve the decided goal for- mankind.