The political squabble among different countries of Europe of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries crossed its barrier and found expression outside.
The foot-steps of such quarrel were heard in Asia and Africa. This quarrel took place due to Colonialism.
The ghost of Colonialism haunted most of the countries of Europe. The net result of this was disastrous which gave birth to a monster like First World War.
Meaning of Colonialism:
The meaning of Colonialism is very simple. When a country conquers another country and imposes its supremacy on that conquered country, it is known as colonialism. In Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries several countries of Europe like France, England, and Portugal etc. established their colonies are different countries of Asia and Africa. This thirst of imperial expansion was known as Colonialism.
Causes of the Rise of Colonialism:
Many countries of Europe had established their colonies outside. Many reasons were responsible for that.
At first, with the Discovery of New Sea-Route, new places and countries were discovered. After Columbus had discovered America, the countries like Spain and Portugal established Colonies in that country. When Vascodagama discovered sea-route to India, Portugal had to establish its colonies in that country. Subsequently, France and England came to establish their colonies in India.
Secondly, Economic Consideration encouraged colonialism. The countries like England, France, Spain and Portugal established their colonies and wanted to be rich by bringing money from those colonies.
Thirdly, the Industrial Revolution prompted the countries of Europe to procure raw-materials from outside for their factories. Since, they had no huge quantity of raw-materials for their factories; they had no alternative to bring the same from their colonies. This gave rise to Colonialism.
Fourthly, some European countries having imperial tendency wanted to send their Surplus Population to outside. That is why they wanted to have their colonies for absorbing surplus population.
Fifthly, due to the Industrial Revolution, the Capitalists became richer. They decided to invest their surplus money outside. This also gave rise to Colonialism.
Sixthly, many European countries wanted to educate the backward countries of Asia and Europe. Rudyard keeping, a famous poet of England propounded the theory of ‘White men’s burden’. This prompted England to establish overseas empire. In every sense, this view prompted colonialism.
Seventhly, many countries of Europe felt that ‘Colonies are the Pride of a Country. Mainly England, France, Germany and Portugal championed this cause. This gave rise to unhealthy competition among the European countries for having more and more colonies.
Finally, the unstable political condition of some of the countries of Asia and Africa gave scope for the rise of Colonialism. Taking chance of such weakness, the European countries tried to establish their colonies in these countries and thus colonialism got chance to grow.
Establishment of Colonies in Asia:
The European countries established their colonies in many Asian countries.
Those countries were:
After the discovery of sea-route to India in 1498 by Vascodagama, the European Countries tried to establish their colonies in India. The Portuguese first entered into India and established their colonies in Goa, Daman and Diu. After that the Dutch, French and English had their colonies in India. At last in the game of power politics, the English became successful and ruled India about two hundred years.
The Portuguese first established their colonies in South-East Asia. They had first occupied Malacca. In 1640, the Dutch occupied it by defeating the Portuguese. After that, the Dutch established their colonies in Java, Sumatra, Borneo and Bali. The Dutch also occupied Ceylon but during the Napoleonic Wars, the English occupied it from the Dutch.
The English also occupied Burma. They got Hongkong from China in 1819. The French received Sigan from China. They also established their authority over Tonking. In a similar vein, Russia occupied Arthar harbour and a large portion of Manchuria. Germany occupied Kiachou. Japan occupied Korea and Formosa.
In Central Asia, Russia and England established their colonies. Russia occupied Taskent, Samarkand and Bokhara. As per an agreement, the northern part of Persia was retained by Russia and its southern part came under the sway of England. Germany could not establish a single colony in this area. In this way, colonialism had its impact in many parts of Asia.
Establishment of Colony in Africa:
Like the Asian Countries, the continent of Africa also experienced colonialism. Several countries of Africa came under the sway of Colonialism.
Togoland and Cameroon:
David Livingstone had discovered Africa. After that, the European countries got an idea about the wealth of that continent. In due course of time, Leopold II, the ruler of Belgium sent soldiers and created a free Congo state. However, in 1907 Belgium brought it under his control. After unification, Germany concentrated on colonial empire.
So, Germany occupied Togoland and Cameroon in 1884. Of course, after the defeat in the World War I, Germany had to surrender these colonies. Till that time Germany had her sway on East and South Africa.
Algeria, Tunis, Madagascar etc.:
France also tried his level best to establish her colony in Africa. France occupied Algeria and sent 11,000 people from Alsace and Lorraine to live there. After that, Tunis came under France. With the gradual march of time, Madagascar, Ivory Coast, Dahomi, Morocco, Senegal and Sahara desert came under the colonial possession of France.
Angola, Mozambique, Tripoli, Abysinia etc.:
Spain, Portugal and Italy also wanted to have their colony in Africa. Portugal established his colony at Angola, which is situated in the south of Congo. She also occupied Mozambique. Italy occupied Eritria and Samali land.
It also established colonies in Libya and Tripoli, situated in North Africa. Abysinia also come under its sway. Spain occupied Caeri Islands situated on Guena Coast and also other islands.
The English established her colonies in East, West, North and South Africa. Cecili Rhodes helped a lot in the establishment of England’s colonies in Africa. He helped England to occupy Rhodesia, Nyasalahd and Cape Colony. In 1855, England declared that the Bechuana Land was under his control.
In 1886 she occupied Gold Coast and extended its help to Uganda, Kenya and Nigeria. England also occupied Sudan and Somali Land in 1898. After her victory, in the ‘Boer War’ England occupied Transbahal and Orangefree State. England only occupied five hundred lakhs square miles of land in Africa and exerted her influence over ninety lakhs people of that Continent there by establishing her supremacy.
End of Colonialism:
The Colonialism of the West could not last long. During the World War I, it got a severe jolt. The Press, education and political consciousness which grew in these colonies made the people conscious about their rights. On the other hand, the capitalist countries could not fulfill the social and political needs of the people of different colonies. Nationalism grew in these countries and after World War II, the colonies declared their independence one after another.