1. London Declaration:
When the Second World War was going on, the Big Powers assembled at London On 12 June, 1941.
These countries were England, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, France, South Africa, Greece, Belgium and Czechoslovakia. All the countries assembled at the James Palace at London. They declared for an international peace organisation in this London Declaration.
Various attempts were made for the establishment of the U.N.O. These efforts have been discussed below:
2. The Atlantic Charter:
During the Second World War, England’s Prime Minister Winston Churchill and the U.S.A. President Franklin Roosevelt met in a ship on the Atlantic Ocean. They signed a declaration on 12 June, 1941 which is known as Atlantic Charter. In this declaration importance was attached for the establishment of an international organisation. Importance was also attached on the prevalence of international peace, non-aggression and formation of one’s own Government by a country.
3. Declaration of the UNO:
Atlantic Declaration was recognised on 1 January 1942. After that, declaration was made about the United Nations Organisation. 26 Countries signed this agreement later. In this declaration it was unanimously accepted that the member nations should help each other and without their permission it was impossible to make alliance with the enemy countries.
4. Moscow Declaration:
The Foreign Ministers of USA, England, Russia and China assembled at Moscow, on 30 October, 1943. In this declaration a decision was taken regarding the establishment of an International Organisation and every nation could take part in it.
5. Teheran Conference:
On I December, 1943, Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin met at Teheran. In this Conference, the three leaders put emphasis on international peace and security. A declaration was also made in this Conference regarding these principles.
6. Dumbarton Oaks Conference:
This Conference played a vital role in creating an international organisation. In this Conference, a discussion was made regarding the name, structure, functions and different parts of the Organisation.
7. Yalta Conference:
A Conference was arranged at Yalta on II February 1945. In this conference Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin assembled again. They put emphasis on the creation of an international Organisation to keep up world peace. In this Conference, many unsolved problems of Dumbarton Oaks Conference were solved in this Conference.
8. San Francisco Conference:
This Conference was the last attempt for the formation of United Nations Organisation. It was held at San Francisco on 25 June 1945. All the 51 nations present there, discussed on the UNO Charter. After the recommendation of countries like USA, Soviet Russia, England, France, China etc. it was declared that the UNO Charter would function soon. Thus, the UNO came into existence on 24 October, 1945.
9. Establishment of the United Nations Organization:
As stated earlier, the UNO Charter was recognised on 24 October 1945 and the UNO was established. It played a vital role in keeping world peace. Gradually its membership started to increase. Now UNO has 191 member states. These numbers will increase in future. Really, the establishment of the UNOcreated a new chapter in the world history. Along with the establishment of UNO, the maintenance of world peace began to take a concrete step.
In order to reduce the gap between Russia and United States of America in the Cold War period, the attempt of the UNO was remarkable. The role of UNO in undertaking many welfare activities in the nook and comer of the world is praiseworthy.