Useful Notes on the Evaluation of History Teaching!
Once the teacher has a clear idea of what he will teach and how he will teach it, he is concerned with knowing to what extent children learn from his lesson. This article will specifically deal with evaluation of history teaching-learning.
Evaluation is a continuous process which is an integral part of teaching. It is not merely a test at the end of history lesson or unit.
Instead evaluation goes a constantly during lesson and units and is clearly related to the teacher’s goal and points of view on history teaching. The main aim of any teaching-learning programme is to bring about certain desirable change in pupils.
It is with this definite aim that teaching-learning experiences are designed and planned before hand. As learning takes place, teachers have to ascertain very frequently the growth and change, taking place in pupils as a result of teaching learning experiences. This is evaluation.
To evaluate means to characterise the work or value of something. It is a method of determining the extent to which previously established goals or objectives have been achieved. It is a “process of making an overlay of the outcomes of educative experiences against the background of anticipated or stated objectives”.
To make improvements in any educational programme we need its evaluation good evaluation can only be made in relation to the goals of instructions. Thus there is a close relationship between objectives, experiences and evaluation. A good evaluation rests upon: (i) educational objectives, (ii) learning and behaviour changes, and (iii) tools and techniques of evaluation.
To test efficiency of teaching, to judge the progress of students and to discover their achievements and evaluate the whole system we require some sort of measuring tools. These tools are tests or examinations. Tests are essential to grade and rank pupils, however, if evaluation is used merely to indicate areas of subject to which students have been exposed or for classifying and categorizing students, a great value is lost.
The same loss occurs if evaluation is interpreted only as arriving at numerical or alphabetical ratings for report cards. In this way much of the positive use of evaluation as a means of teaching and learning could be destroyed.
Effective instructional planning and evaluation of student’s performance have always been stressed on the statement of instructional objectives so that they are of great help to the students. According to Muller, an instructionally usable objective must state the intended outcome in terms of terminal behaviour of students.
Terminal behaviour here means the behaviour of the student after class-room instruction and evaluation is possible if the learning outcomes are carefully specified. By combing continuous evaluation with immediate application of what has been learned, the teacher can provide for:
(i) The stimulation of students who learn rapidly to greater growth
Towards goals is application of advanced works.
(ii) The identification of specific weaknesses and difficulties in functional understanding (concepts, principles, generalizations) and the needed retouching of varied activities skills or problem solving abilities, and
(iii) The clarification, modification or complete alternation of goals as needed for the unit.
Evaluation, teaching and learning are the three comers of the education system. Evaluation is concerned with finding out how far students have learned as a consequence of teaching. There are two kinds or evaluation depending upon whether the comparison of students is made with some absolute performance standard or with other students of group. These are known as criterion referenced evaluation and norm referenced evaluation.
It accesses the student’s performance relative to other students of the group. Students are awarded marks and relative ranks in this method of evaluation.
It assesses the student’s performance in terms of a specified performance standard or criterion without any mention of the performance levels of the other students of the group. This evaluation method is related to mastery and developmental test.
Purpose of Evaluation:
The main purpose of evaluation is:
(i) For determining the teaching-learning process,
(ii) For revision of the curriculum,
(iii) To provide an objective basis for reporting progress of students,
(iv) For securing effective co-operation from the parents and the community,
(v) For determining the policies of promotion, and
(vi) To provide suitable guidance to pupils, on the basis of their evaluation.
Thus we find that evaluation is an essential part of the educational process. It helps in realising the goals of instructions. It points out the defects in teaching-learning process. It also helps in ascertaining the effectiveness of the curriculum, methods and devices of teaching etc.