History Lessons: Advantages and Features of Lesson Planning!
A proper planning of lessons is the key to effective teaching. The teacher must know in advance the subject-matter and mode of its delivery in the class-room.
This planning will give the teacher idea of how to introduce the topic, how to develop the key concepts, how to correlate the concepts to real life situations and how to conclude the lesson.
According to Bossing, “Lesson plan is the title given to the statement of the achievements to be realized and the specific means by which these are to be attained as a result of the activities engaged in, during the period”.
L.B. Stands conceives a lesson plan as “Plan of action” implemented by the teacher in the class-room.
G.H. Green says,” the teacher who has planned his lesson wisely related to his topic and to his class will be in a position to enter the class-room without any anxiety, ready to embark with confidence upon a job he understands and prepared to carry it to a work man able conclusion.
He has far seen the difficulties that are likely to arise, and prepared himself to deal with them. He knows the aims, his lesson is intended to fulfill, and he has mar Shelled his own resources for the purpose, and because he is free of anxiety, he will be able coolly to estimate the value of his work as the lesson proceeds, equally aware of failure and success and prepared to learn from both.”
Though a syllabus is prescribed for each class yet the teacher is at liberty to draw up his own teaching syllabus. It is best to organize the teaching syllabus around a few broad areas of experience of pupils. For this purpose the syllabus is divided into a number of units.
Like planning of other activities Planning of lesson is also needed. Without proper planning of the lesson, it is not possible for the teacher to carry out the teaching successfully. It has been rightly remarked: “Without planning the teacher is just like a ship moving in the sea without any aim and destination.”
Advantages of Lesson Planning:
Some of the advantages of lesson planning are as under:
(i) Lesson planning makes the work regular, organized and more systematic.
(ii) It induces confidence in the teacher.
(iii) It makes teacher quite conscious of the aim which makes him conscious of attitudes he wants to develop in his students.
(iv) It saves a lot of time.
(v) It helps in making correlation between the concepts with the pupil’s environment.
(vi) It stimulates the teacher to ask striking questions
(vii) It provides more freedom in teaching.
(viii) It makes possible for the teacher to move in a scientific manner.
Features of a Lesson Plan:
Some important features of a lesson-plan are as under:
The entire cognitive objective that is intended to be fulfilled should be listed in the lesson-plan. Objectives should be formulated in terms of changes desired in behaviour of students. Objectives, as we know, have two specifications; the content specification and the competence specification. We have to mention clearly what type of changes we are going to bring in different domains cognitive, affective and psychomoter of students behaviour within a particular type of content.
The objective should be written in specific behavioural terms stating exactly what the learner will be doing, or saying when he demonstrates that he has achieved the aims of an instructional sequence. Walbesser constructing behavioural objectives listed four requirements for the construction of objectives:
1. Words denoting the stimulus situation which initiates the performance should appear in the description of the objective.
2. An action verb which denotes observable behavior must be contained in the description.
3. A word denoting the object acted upon must be contained in the description.
4. A phrase which indicates the characteristics of the performance that determines its correctness or acceptability must be included in the description of the objectives.
An example of a well stated behavioural objective in history is:
The students will be able to recall and recognize the facts and events relating to the period of Asoka.
In selecting the objectives for a particular lesson in history, the teacher, first of all, should see that they are worthwhile learning out-comes, pertinent to the course. Secondly, the teacher should be clear and definite in his mind about the desired learning outcomes. Lastly, the objective should be feasible. In other words, it should be attained by the procedure followed and within the time allotted for it.
The subject-matter that is intended to be covered should be limited to the prescribed time. The matter must be interesting and it should be related to pupil’s previous knowledge. It should be related to daily life situations.
The most appropriate method is chosen by the teacher. The method chosen should be suitable to the subject-matter to be taught. Suitable teaching aids must also be identified by the teacher. Teacher may also use supplementary aids to make his lesson more effective.
Teacher must evaluate his lesson to find the extent to which he has achieved the aim of his lesson evaluation can be done even by recapitulation of subject-matter through suitable questions.
In writing a lesson plan the following points are written down:
(vii) General objectives,
(viii) Specific objectives,
(ix) Previous knowledge of the students,
(x) Teaching aids and materials to be used,
(xii) Statement of object,
(xvi) Black-board summary,